Did you ever wonder how the flashlight got its name? Early models were powered by energy-inefficient carbon-filament bulbs that "rested" periodically for short intervals. They could be used only in brief flashes, and thus were called flashlights.
The flashlight's inventor was David Misell of Great Britain. In 1899, he patented the first — just a paper tube containing "D" batteries, with the light bulb and a rough brass reflector at the end. The devices didn't gain popularity, however, until 1904 when the development of improved batteries and the more efficient tungsten-filament bulb made flashlights more useful and popular.
Today's flashlights are available in hundreds of styles, sizes and colors. They provide a portable light source you can carry in a backpack, on a belt, in your pocket or even on a keychain. Prices vary widely depending on features, from $10 for a mini light such as Streamlight's NanoLight to more than $500 for an LED-Lenser X21R Rechargeable Flashlight.
A big difference among flashlights (and other battery-powered camp lights) is the type of light used (krypton, halogen, xenon or LED), the amount of light it projects (measured in "lumens" — the more lumens, the brighter the light) and its relative lifespan.
What Are the Bulb Differences?
Incandescent lights create light when electricity heats a tungsten filament inside a glass bulb. Originally, they had a vacuum around the filament, but newer ones contain krypton, halogen or xenon gas for increased efficiency.
These three types are technologically superior to conventional incandescents, but the filaments eventually burn out, and the bulb must be replaced. Also, the fragile filaments often break when jarred.
LED for Close Encounters
The lights in LED (Light Emitting Diode) flashlights have no filament to burn out or break and don't get hot like incandescents. Solid-state construction makes them very durable and long-lived — up to 100,000 hours of life. They also have extremely long run-times (hundreds of hours) at low illumination levels, unlike a xenon or halogen light that may have, at best, 5 to 9 hours of run-time. The drawback to LEDs is they don't project light over great distances; most are best for close illumination.
|LED flashlights are made for close illumination.|
Also available are combination incandescent/LED flashlights. These provide the best of both worlds, allowing you to adjust the brightness and thus energy consumption level of your light.
Chuck or Recharge it?
Another consideration is whether to buy a flashlight that uses disposable or rechargeable batteries. Disposable (non-rechargeable) batteries, the standard AAA, AA, C, D and 9-volt units everyone is familiar with, have a lower purchase price, so it's less expensive to keep spares on hand. Their biggest limitation is their one-time use, which makes them about 30 times more expensive than rechargeable batteries. On the plus side, they have long storage life, 50 percent more power than lithium-ion rechargeables and immediate operational readiness. No charging is required before use. Rechargeable batteries (nickel-cadmium or lithium ion) have a higher initial purchase price and must be charged before use, but they are much more economical in the long run and often support a brighter bulb or LED.
One also should consider these facts about batteries:
- Disposable alkaline batteries — While fairly inexpensive, performance is affected by heat and cold. They are brightest when first used and decline rapidly thereafter.
- Disposable lithium batteries — Not affected by extreme heat and cold. Have a steady power curve over the life of the battery and a long shelf life of nearly 10 years.
- Rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries — Highest performance/cost ratio of rechargeables. New technology has increased effectiveness, but must be fully charged to prevent memory-effect problems. Rechargeable up to 1,000 times. Must be recycled or disposed of properly.
- Rechargeable lithium ion batteries — Can be charged up to 1,000 times with no memory-effect problems. Longer run-time but more expensive than standard lithium batteries. Environmentally friendly; can be thrown away.
What Else Should You Know?
With the above information on bulb and battery types, you begin the process of selecting a flashlight that's right for you, but before making a purchase, consider other features as well.
- Size: Choose a light that will be comfortable and convenient to use, store and carry. A five-D-cell light may have phenomenal light output great for illuminating distant objects, but it's probably too long and heavy for backpacking where a smaller light is more appropriate.
- Construction: Quality, long-lasting lights are built with superior components such as a machined aluminum or Nitrolon body, a Lexan or Pyrex bezel (the clear lens through which the light shines), a well-designed reflector behind the light, an easy on-off switch and weatherproofing features such as O-ring seals.
- Specialty lights: Many lights are made with specific purposes in mind, including emergency lights such as Nebo Wind-Up Flashlight and tactical models such as Streamlight PT 2AA Ultra-Compact Tactical Flashlight. If you have a specific task in mind, there's probably a light made for it.